/Twig 2


Displaying Deprecation Notices

Deprecated features generate deprecation notices (via a call to the trigger_error() PHP function). By default, they are silenced and never displayed nor logged.

To easily remove all deprecated feature usages from your templates, write and run a script along the lines of the following:

require_once __DIR__.'/vendor/autoload.php';

$twig = create_your_twig_env();

$deprecations = new Twig_Util_DeprecationCollector($twig);


The collectDir() method compiles all templates found in a directory, catches deprecation notices, and return them.


If your templates are not stored on the filesystem, use the collect() method instead. collect() takes a Traversable which must return template names as keys and template contents as values (as done by Twig_Util_TemplateDirIterator).

However, this code won't find all deprecations (like using deprecated some Twig classes). To catch all notices, register a custom error handler like the one below:

$deprecations = array();
set_error_handler(function ($type, $msg) use (&$deprecations) {
    if (E_USER_DEPRECATED === $type) {
        $deprecations[] = $msg;

// run your application


Note that most deprecation notices are triggered during compilation, so they won't be generated when templates are already cached.


If you want to manage the deprecation notices from your PHPUnit tests, have a look at the symfony/phpunit-bridge package, which eases the process a lot.

Making a Layout conditional

Working with Ajax means that the same content is sometimes displayed as is, and sometimes decorated with a layout. As Twig layout template names can be any valid expression, you can pass a variable that evaluates to true when the request is made via Ajax and choose the layout accordingly:

{% extends request.ajax ? "base_ajax.html" : "base.html" %}

{% block content %}
    This is the content to be displayed.
{% endblock %}

Making an Include dynamic

When including a template, its name does not need to be a string. For instance, the name can depend on the value of a variable:

{% include var ~ '_foo.html' %}

If var evaluates to index, the index_foo.html template will be rendered.

As a matter of fact, the template name can be any valid expression, such as the following:

{% include var|default('index') ~ '_foo.html' %}

Overriding a Template that also extends itself

A template can be customized in two different ways:

  • Inheritance: A template extends a parent template and overrides some blocks;
  • Replacement: If you use the filesystem loader, Twig loads the first template it finds in a list of configured directories; a template found in a directory replaces another one from a directory further in the list.

But how do you combine both: replace a template that also extends itself (aka a template in a directory further in the list)?

Let's say that your templates are loaded from both .../templates/mysite and .../templates/default in this order. The page.twig template, stored in .../templates/default reads as follows:

{# page.twig #}
{% extends "layout.twig" %}

{% block content %}
{% endblock %}

You can replace this template by putting a file with the same name in .../templates/mysite. And if you want to extend the original template, you might be tempted to write the following:

{# page.twig in .../templates/mysite #}
{% extends "page.twig" %} {# from .../templates/default #}

Of course, this will not work as Twig will always load the template from .../templates/mysite.

It turns out it is possible to get this to work, by adding a directory right at the end of your template directories, which is the parent of all of the other directories: .../templates in our case. This has the effect of making every template file within our system uniquely addressable. Most of the time you will use the "normal" paths, but in the special case of wanting to extend a template with an overriding version of itself we can reference its parent's full, unambiguous template path in the extends tag:

{# page.twig in .../templates/mysite #}
{% extends "default/page.twig" %} {# from .../templates #}


This recipe was inspired by the following Django wiki page: https://code.djangoproject.com/wiki/ExtendingTemplates

Customizing the Syntax

Twig allows some syntax customization for the block delimiters. It's not recommended to use this feature as templates will be tied with your custom syntax. But for specific projects, it can make sense to change the defaults.

To change the block delimiters, you need to create your own lexer object:

$twig = new Twig_Environment(...);

$lexer = new Twig_Lexer($twig, array(
    'tag_comment'   => array('{#', '#}'),
    'tag_block'     => array('{%', '%}'),
    'tag_variable'  => array('{{', '}}'),
    'interpolation' => array('#{', '}'),

Here are some configuration example that simulates some other template engines syntax:

// Ruby erb syntax
$lexer = new Twig_Lexer($twig, array(
    'tag_comment'  => array('<%#', '%>'),
    'tag_block'    => array('<%', '%>'),
    'tag_variable' => array('<%=', '%>'),

// SGML Comment Syntax
$lexer = new Twig_Lexer($twig, array(
    'tag_comment'  => array('<!--#', '-->'),
    'tag_block'    => array('<!--', '-->'),
    'tag_variable' => array('${', '}'),

// Smarty like
$lexer = new Twig_Lexer($twig, array(
    'tag_comment'  => array('{*', '*}'),
    'tag_block'    => array('{', '}'),
    'tag_variable' => array('{$', '}'),

Using dynamic Object Properties

When Twig encounters a variable like article.title, it tries to find a title public property in the article object.

It also works if the property does not exist but is rather defined dynamically thanks to the magic __get() method; you just need to also implement the __isset() magic method like shown in the following snippet of code:

class Article
    public function __get($name)
        if ('title' == $name) {
            return 'The title';

        // throw some kind of error

    public function __isset($name)
        if ('title' == $name) {
            return true;

        return false;

Accessing the parent Context in Nested Loops

Sometimes, when using nested loops, you need to access the parent context. The parent context is always accessible via the loop.parent variable. For instance, if you have the following template data:

$data = array(
    'topics' => array(
        'topic1' => array('Message 1 of topic 1', 'Message 2 of topic 1'),
        'topic2' => array('Message 1 of topic 2', 'Message 2 of topic 2'),

And the following template to display all messages in all topics:

{% for topic, messages in topics %}
    * {{ loop.index }}: {{ topic }}
  {% for message in messages %}
      - {{ loop.parent.loop.index }}.{{ loop.index }}: {{ message }}
  {% endfor %}
{% endfor %}

The output will be similar to:

* 1: topic1
  - 1.1: The message 1 of topic 1
  - 1.2: The message 2 of topic 1
* 2: topic2
  - 2.1: The message 1 of topic 2
  - 2.2: The message 2 of topic 2

In the inner loop, the loop.parent variable is used to access the outer context. So, the index of the current topic defined in the outer for loop is accessible via the loop.parent.loop.index variable.

Defining undefined Functions and Filters on the Fly

When a function (or a filter) is not defined, Twig defaults to throw a Twig_Error_Syntax exception. However, it can also call a callback (any valid PHP callable) which should return a function (or a filter).

For filters, register callbacks with registerUndefinedFilterCallback(). For functions, use registerUndefinedFunctionCallback():

// auto-register all native PHP functions as Twig functions
// don't try this at home as it's not secure at all!
$twig->registerUndefinedFunctionCallback(function ($name) {
    if (function_exists($name)) {
        return new Twig_Function($name, $name);

    return false;

If the callable is not able to return a valid function (or filter), it must return false.

If you register more than one callback, Twig will call them in turn until one does not return false.


As the resolution of functions and filters is done during compilation, there is no overhead when registering these callbacks.

Validating the Template Syntax

When template code is provided by a third-party (through a web interface for instance), it might be interesting to validate the template syntax before saving it. If the template code is stored in a $template variable, here is how you can do it:

try {
    $twig->parse($twig->tokenize(new Twig_Source($template)));

    // the $template is valid
} catch (Twig_Error_Syntax $e) {
    // $template contains one or more syntax errors

If you iterate over a set of files, you can pass the filename to the tokenize() method to get the filename in the exception message:

foreach ($files as $file) {
    try {
        $twig->parse($twig->tokenize(new Twig_Source($template, $file->getFilename(), $file)));

        // the $template is valid
    } catch (Twig_Error_Syntax $e) {
        // $template contains one or more syntax errors


This method won't catch any sandbox policy violations because the policy is enforced during template rendering (as Twig needs the context for some checks like allowed methods on objects).

Refreshing modified Templates when OPcache or APC is enabled

When using OPcache with opcache.validate_timestamps set to 0 or APC with apc.stat set to 0 and Twig cache enabled, clearing the template cache won't update the cache.

To get around this, force Twig to invalidate the bytecode cache:

$twig = new Twig_Environment($loader, array(
    'cache' => new Twig_Cache_Filesystem('/some/cache/path', Twig_Cache_Filesystem::FORCE_BYTECODE_INVALIDATION),
    // ...

Reusing a stateful Node Visitor

When attaching a visitor to a Twig_Environment instance, Twig uses it to visit all templates it compiles. If you need to keep some state information around, you probably want to reset it when visiting a new template.

This can be easily achieved with the following code:

protected $someTemplateState = array();

public function enterNode(Twig_Node $node, Twig_Environment $env)
    if ($node instanceof Twig_Node_Module) {
        // reset the state as we are entering a new template
        $this->someTemplateState = array();

    // ...

    return $node;

Using a Database to store Templates

If you are developing a CMS, templates are usually stored in a database. This recipe gives you a simple PDO template loader you can use as a starting point for your own.

First, let's create a temporary in-memory SQLite3 database to work with:

$dbh = new PDO('sqlite::memory:');
$dbh->exec('CREATE TABLE templates (name STRING, source STRING, last_modified INTEGER)');
$base = '{% block content %}{% endblock %}';
$index = '
{% extends "base.twig" %}
{% block content %}Hello {{ name }}{% endblock %}
$now = time();
$dbh->exec("INSERT INTO templates (name, source, last_modified) VALUES ('base.twig', '$base', $now)");
$dbh->exec("INSERT INTO templates (name, source, last_modified) VALUES ('index.twig', '$index', $now)");

We have created a simple templates table that hosts two templates: base.twig and index.twig.

Now, let's define a loader able to use this database:

class DatabaseTwigLoader implements Twig_LoaderInterface
    protected $dbh;

    public function __construct(PDO $dbh)
        $this->dbh = $dbh;

    public function getSourceContext($name)
        if (false === $source = $this->getValue('source', $name)) {
            throw new Twig_Error_Loader(sprintf('Template "%s" does not exist.', $name));

        return new Twig_Source($source, $name);

    public function exists($name)
        return $name === $this->getValue('name', $name);

    public function getCacheKey($name)
        return $name;

    public function isFresh($name, $time)
        if (false === $lastModified = $this->getValue('last_modified', $name)) {
            return false;

        return $lastModified <= $time;

    protected function getValue($column, $name)
        $sth = $this->dbh->prepare('SELECT '.$column.' FROM templates WHERE name = :name');
        $sth->execute(array(':name' => (string) $name));

        return $sth->fetchColumn();

Finally, here is an example on how you can use it:

$loader = new DatabaseTwigLoader($dbh);
$twig = new Twig_Environment($loader);

echo $twig->render('index.twig', array('name' => 'Fabien'));

Using different Template Sources

This recipe is the continuation of the previous one. Even if you store the contributed templates in a database, you might want to keep the original/base templates on the filesystem. When templates can be loaded from different sources, you need to use the Twig_Loader_Chain loader.

As you can see in the previous recipe, we reference the template in the exact same way as we would have done it with a regular filesystem loader. This is the key to be able to mix and match templates coming from the database, the filesystem, or any other loader for that matter: the template name should be a logical name, and not the path from the filesystem:

$loader1 = new DatabaseTwigLoader($dbh);
$loader2 = new Twig_Loader_Array(array(
    'base.twig' => '{% block content %}{% endblock %}',
$loader = new Twig_Loader_Chain(array($loader1, $loader2));

$twig = new Twig_Environment($loader);

echo $twig->render('index.twig', array('name' => 'Fabien'));

Now that the base.twig templates is defined in an array loader, you can remove it from the database, and everything else will still work as before.

Loading a Template from a String

From a template, you can easily load a template stored in a string via the template_from_string function (via the Twig_Extension_StringLoader extension):

{{ include(template_from_string("Hello {{ name }}")) }}

From PHP, it's also possible to load a template stored in a string via Twig_Environment::createTemplate():

$template = $twig->createTemplate('hello {{ name }}');
echo $template->render(array('name' => 'Fabien'));

Using Twig and AngularJS in the same Templates

Mixing different template syntaxes in the same file is not a recommended practice as both AngularJS and Twig use the same delimiters in their syntax: {{ and }}.

Still, if you want to use AngularJS and Twig in the same template, there are two ways to make it work depending on the amount of AngularJS you need to include in your templates:

  • Escaping the AngularJS delimiters by wrapping AngularJS sections with the {% verbatim %} tag or by escaping each delimiter via {{ '{{' }} and {{ '}}' }};

  • Changing the delimiters of one of the template engines (depending on which engine you introduced last):

    • For AngularJS, change the interpolation tags using the interpolateProvider service, for instance at the module initialization time:

      angular.module('myApp', []).config(function($interpolateProvider) {
    • For Twig, change the delimiters via the tag_variable Lexer option:

      $env->setLexer(new Twig_Lexer($env, array(
          'tag_variable' => array('{[', ']}'),

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